San Francisco Syncope Rule to Predict Serious Outcomes
Defines high-risk criteria for patients with syncope.
- Quinn J, McDermott D, Stiell I, Kohn M, Wells G. Prospective validation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 May;47(5):448-54. Epub 2006 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 16631985.
- Birnbaum A, Esses D, Bijur P, Wollowitz A, Gallagher EJ. Failure to validate the San Francisco Syncope Rule in an independent emergency department population. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug;52(2):151-9. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 18282636.
Note: This rule has a 96% sensitivity and 62% specificity for serious outcome. Negative predictive value: 99.2%; positive predictive value 24.8%.
Serious Outcome in this study is defined as "death, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, significant hemorrhage, or any condition causing a return ED visit and hospitalization for a related event."