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    Chief Complaint


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    Patent Pending

    Rockall Score for Upper GI Bleeding (Pre-Endoscopy)

    Determines severity of GI bleeding, prior to endoscopy.


    Use this score for upper GI bleed patients who have NOT yet had endoscopy. Use the Complete Rockall Score for patients who have had endoscopy.
    When to Use
    Why Use

    Patients with clinical upper GI bleeding, prior to endoscopy.

    • The pre-endoscopy Rockall Score estimates mortality in patients with active upper GI bleed who have not had endoscopy.
    • It is supported by multiple validation studies, most showing moderate prediction of death at higher risk.
    • It can predict very low risk patients, but with less accuracy.
    • The pre-endoscopy score is calculated based on clinical bleeding (i.e., without endoscopy results).
    • Upper GI bleeding may present in different degrees of severity, from minor bleeding that can be managed outpatient to severe, life-threatening hemorrhage.
    • The pre-endoscopy Rockall Score can help stratify which patients need endoscopy and intensive care. It is less accurate at identifying low-risk patients (e.g. those who may be treated as outpatients).
    <60 years
    60-79 years
    ≥80 years
    No shock (SBP ≥100 AND HR <100)
    Tachycardia (SBP ≥100 AND HR ≥100)
    Hypotension (SBP <100)
    No major comorbidity
    Any comorbidity EXCEPT renal failure, liver failure, and/or disseminated malignancy
    Renal failure, liver failure, and/or disseminated malignancy


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    Creator Insights
    Dr. Timothy Rockall

    About the Creator

    Timothy Rockall, MD, is a consultant surgeon at the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford. He specializes in gastrointestinal surgery and the management of colorectal disease. He has a particular interest in the development and practice of laparoscopic surgery and has developed an international reputation in the practice of laparoscopic resection for colorectal disease including bowel cancer. Dr. Rockall is also the creator of the Complete Rockall Score for Upper GI Bleeding.

    To view Dr. Timothy Rockall's publications, visit PubMed

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    MDCalc loves calculator creators – researchers who, through intelligent and often complex methods, discover tools that describe scientific facts that can then be applied in practice. These are real scientific discoveries about the nature of the human body, which can be invaluable to physicians taking care of patients.
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