Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm





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    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Contributors to MDCalc

    MDCalc’s Contributors author the content accompanying calcs, which provides guidance on When to Use, Pearls/Pitfalls, Why Use, Next Steps, and an Evidence Appraisal. Our Contributors tend to be academic physicians practicing clinically, typically earlier in their careers, who are passionate about EBM and interested in translating evidence into usable bedside tools.

    Contributors who write content for three or more calcs or other reviews have the opportunity to be listed on this page, with an expected contribution of one calc per year thereafter to be considered an active contributor.

    We also consider fellows and senior residents going into academic medicine. Applications for Contributors are reviewed on a rolling basis. Contributors may also be invited to peer review other calculators in their specialty.

    To apply, please submit your application here.

    Jonathan Avery, MD

    Jonathan Avery, MD, is an assistant professor of psychiatry at the Weill Cornell Medical College, where he maintains a practice in general adult and addiction psychiatry. He is also an attending psychiatrist at New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Avery is a graduate of the New York University School of Medicine, and he completed residency at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Payne Whitney Clinic. During residency, he was selected as a fellow in the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry and won numerous awards for his clinical and academic work. Dr. Avery completed an addiction psychiatry fellowship at the New York University School of Medicine, prior to employment on the Cornell faculty. Dr. Avery now teaches addiction psychiatry and inpatient psychiatry to the Weill Cornell medical students and psychiatry residents of New York-Presbyterian Hospital. He has been published on a variety of topics in psychiatry, including clinician attitudes towards patients and how to use buprenorphine. He was also on the editorial board for the DSM-5 Clinical Cases book.

    Calculators contributed to: AUDIT-C | CAGE Questions | CIWA-Ar | COWS Score

    Joshua Beiner, MD

    Joshua Beiner, MD, is an attending physician and assistant professor of clinical emergency medicine and pediatrics at NYU. A native New Yorker, Dr. Beiner moved to New Orleans to study at Tulane University before traveling to Israel where he received his medical degree from Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University. He returned to New York to complete residency training in pediatrics at Albert Einstein – Jacobi Medical Center. His research interests include pediatric sepsis, clinical decision rules, evidence-based medicine, and emergency ultrasound.

    Calculators contributed to: APGAR Score | PECARN Pediatric Head Injury Rule | Pediatric SIRS | Westley Croup Score

    Cullen Clark, MD

    Cullen Clark, MD, is a combined emergency medicine/pediatrics resident at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. Originally from Louisville, Kentucky, Cullen is a graduate of the University of Louisville School of Medicine. His areas of interest include pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric critical care, pain management in the emergency department, and disaster medicine.

    Calculators contributed to: ABC Score | Bacterial Meningitis Score | HEART Pathway | OHFRS | Pediatric Asthma Score

    Joseph Habboushe, MD, MBA

    Joseph Habboushe, MD, MBA, is a practicing emergency physician and assistant professor at New York University Langone Medical Center and Bellevue Medical Centers in New York City. He is the CEO and co-founder of MDCalc. Dr. Habboushe is also the creator and editor-in-chief of the pocket guide series, The Basics of Emergency Medicine, published by the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association.

    Calvin Hwang, MD

    Calvin Hwang, MD, is a clinical assistant professor in the department of orthopaedic surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine. A native Californian, Dr. Hwang grew up in San Diego and attended Stanford University before venturing off to Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, where he received his medical degree. He completed his residency at the Stanford/Kaiser Emergency Medicine program and fellowship in sports medicine at Stanford. He is currently a team physician for the Golden State Warriors, Stanford Football and Stanford Volleyball.

    Calculators contributed to: 4Ts for HIT | ATRIA Bleeding Risk | CHA₂DS₂-VASc Score | CRUSADE Score | HAS-BLED Score | HEMORR₂HAGES Score | HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score | Kocher Criteria | LRINEC Score | Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) | Ottawa Ankle Rule | Ottawa Knee Rule | Pittsburgh Knee Rules | RIETE Score

    Akhil Khosla, MD

    Akhil Khosla, MD, is currently a pulmonary and critical care fellow at Norwalk Hospital affiliated with Yale University School of Medicine. A native of Ontario, Canada, he completed his internal medicine residency at Norwalk Hospital. His current clinical and research interests include acute pulmonary embolism, shock and resuscitation.

    Calculators contributed to: BAP-65 | BODE Index | Bova Score | DECAF Score

    Benjamin Kummer, MD

    Benjamin Kummer, MD, is currently the inaugural Clinical Informatics fellow at New York Presbyterian Hospital, a joint program with Columbia University’s Department of Biomedical Informatics. A New York City native, Dr. Kummer earned a BA from the University of Pennsylvania before working for several years as a business systems analyst at Capital IQ, a financial technology firm. He received his MD from Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia and completed residency training in neurology at the Neurological Institute of New York at Columbia University Medical Center, followed by a fellowship in stroke neurology at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center.

    Calculators contributed to: ASTRAL Score | CP-SSS | Fisher Grading Scale | Hunt & Hess Classification | Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) Score | Modified Fisher Scale | mSOAR Score | sICH Score

    Rachel Kwon, MD

    Rachel Kwon, MD, is the managing editor at MDCalc. Her clinical training is in general surgery, and she is a former research fellow in patient safety and evidence-based surgery in the Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences at the University of Oxford. She is also co-author and co-editor of 50 Studies Every Surgeon Should Know, in press at Oxford University Press.

    Calculators contributed to: Ottawa SAH Rule | Rockall Score (Complete) | Rockall Score (Pre-Endoscopy)

    Hyunjoo Lee, MD

    Hyunjoo Lee, MD, is a clinical assistant professor in emergency medicine at Stony Brook University Hospital. Born and raised in New York, she left New York for her undergraduate studies at Swarthmore College where she received a BA in Biology. She returned to New York and did research in B-cell biology and CLL before heading back to school to obtain her MD from Stony Brook University School of Medicine. She completed her emergency medicine residency at Mount Sinai Beth Israel in New York City and a medical education fellowship in the department of emergency medicine at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia.

    Calculators contributed to: HEART Score | TIMI Score for UA/NSTEMI | T-MACS | Vancouver Chest Pain Rule

    Kamal Medlej, MD

    Kamal (Kim) Medlej, MD, is an attending physician at the department of emergency medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. He was born and raised in Beirut, Lebanon, then moved to Montreal to attend McGill University where he received his medical degree. He completed a residency in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City and served as chief resident in his final year, followed by fellowship in critical care medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. Prior to joining the emergency department at MGH, Dr. Medlej was an attending physician in the emergency department of the American University of Beirut Medical Center in Lebanon then at Mount Sinai St. Luke's-West in New York City where he held appointments in both the emergency department and the division of pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine. His areas of interest include emergency and critical care ultrasound, fluid management, non-invasive patient management, and the intersection of emergency medicine and critical care.

    Calculators contributed to: APACHE II Score | CAM-ICU | Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) | MEWS Score | NEWS Score | qSOFA | Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) | SOFA Score | Shock Index | SIRS & Sepsis Criteria

    Matthew Negaard, MD

    Matthew Negaard, MD, is a current third-year emergency medicine resident at the University of Iowa. He grew up in Sioux City, Iowa and attended Northwestern College in Orange City, Iowa for his undergraduate education. Dr. Negaard received his medical degree from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine where he began to develop an interest in emergency medicine and sports medicine. He has continued to develop and expand his interest in those fields as well as medical education through clinical research and evidence-based practice activities. He plans to pursue a sports medicine fellowship upon completion of his residency.

    Calculators contributed to: Newsom Score | Peds NEXUS II Head CT Decision Instrument | YEARS Algorithm

    Sagar Patel, MD

    Sagar Patel, MD, is currently a fellow in hematology and oncology at the Cleveland Clinic. A native of Minneapolis, he attended the University of Minnesota for both his medical school and internal medicine residency training. Dr. Patel’s areas of interest include health informatics and its advancement of clinical care and research realms. His disease research interests include leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell neoplasms, and bone marrow transplantation.

    Calculators contributed to: Absolute Neutrophil Count | CURB-65 Score | FLIPI for Follicular Lymphoma | GELF Criteria for Follicular Lymphoma | Light's Criteria | PORT/PSI Score

    Randall Pierce, MD

    Randall (Randy) Pierce is in private practice with Northwest Georgia Oncology Centers in Carrollton, Georgia, where he has been in practice since 1998. After graduating from the University of Georgia in 1988, he attended medical school at the Medical College of Georgia. His internal medicine residency and hematology/oncology training were completed at Wake Forest University/Baptist Medical Center in 1998. Dr. Pierce treats most malignancies and has a special interest in myeloma and lymphoma. He is married, has 3 children, and enjoys playing tennis and deep sea fishing.

    Calculators contributed to: Asymptomatic Myeloma Prognosis | IPI and R-IPI | Multiple Myeloma ISS | Revised Myeloma ISS

    Carlos Rodriguez, MD

    Carlos Rodriguez, MD, is an attending physician and Medical Education Fellow at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Originally from Puerto Rico, Dr. Rodriguez earned a B.S. in microbiology from the University of Puerto Rico-Arecibo and an M.D. from San Juan Bautista School of Medicine in Puerto Rico, and later completed his emergency medicine residency at Lincoln Hospital in New York. Currently, he is in the process of obtaining a masters of education in the health professions from Johns Hopkins University. His interests include graduate medical education and faculty development.

    Calculators contributed to: HEART Score | TIMI Score for UA/NSTEMI | Vancouver Chest Pain Rule

    Daniel Runde, MD

    Daniel Runde, MD, is currently the assistant residency director and an assistant professor of emergency medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. He received his medical degree at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and completed residency in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York. He recently finished his Medical Education Fellowship at the department of emergency medicine at Harbor-UCLA. Dr. Runde is interested in evidence-based medicine with a focus on patient-important clinical outcomes, CT utilization in the emergency department and education and evaluation in medical education. Currently, he is in the process of obtaining a Masters in Medical Education through the Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

    Calculators contributed to: ABCD² Score | Barnes Jewish Hospital Stroke Dysphagia Screen | Canadian C-Spine Rule | Canadian CT Head Rule | CHADS₂ Score | DRAGON Score | EDACS | Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) | Modified NIH Stroke Scale | Modified Rankin Score | New Orleans Head CT Rule | Newsom Score | NEXUS C-Spine Rule | NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) | PECARN Pediatric Head Injury Rule | Peds NEXUS II Head CT Decision Instrument | Simplified Motor Score | THRIVE Score | tPA Contraindications | YEARS Algorithm

    Ferda Sakman, MD

    Ferda Sakman, MD, obtained her medical degree at the Hacettepe University School of Medicine in Ankara, Turkey and completed her adult psychiatry residency at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, MA. She is currently a research fellow in psychiatry at the Mood and Personality Disorders Program at Mount Sinai Hospital and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center in New York City. Her research interests are focused on understanding the multitude of perspectives on investigating the mind and its functioning – including neurobiological, psychological/psychodynamic, and contemplative/transpersonal approaches, among others – and delineating the relationship between these perspectives, especially as it pertains to therapeutics.

    Calculators contributed to: Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) | GAD-7 | PHQ-9

    Benjamin Slovis, MD

    Benjamin H. Slovis, MD, MA, is an emergency medicine physician and informatician in the department of emergency medicine at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia. A native of New Jersey, Dr. Slovis attended Cornell University for his undergraduate studies and received his MD from UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. He completed his residency at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and a National Library of Medicine Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship with a masters degree from the department of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia University. His research interests include clinical decision support systems, health-information exchange, and medical education.

    Calculators contributed to: CPOT Pain Scale | DASH Score | Geneva Score (Revised) | Padua Prediction Score | PERC Rule | POMPE-C Tool | PESI Score | Simplified PESI | Wells' Score for DVT | Wells' Score for PE

    Justin Taylor, MD

    Justin Taylor, MD, is an instructor on the Leukemia Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. He is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology. He completed his internship and residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. His clinical and research focuses are on the basic biology and translational significance of somatic genetic mutations in hematologic malignancies.

    Calculators contributed to: EUTOS Score | CLL-IPI | MIPI | MASCC Risk Index | IPSS-R | Sokal Score

    Katherine Taylor, MD

    Katherine Taylor, MD, is currently a second-year resident at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Payne Whitney Clinic. A native of New Jersey, Dr. Taylor completed undergraduate studies in Cognitive Sciences at the University of Virginia, graduating with highest distinction. She returned to her home state for medical school, earning her MD from Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. Her areas of interest include psychiatric illness in the medically ill, psycho-oncology, medical ethics, and addiction psychiatry.

    Calculators contributed to: AUDIT-C | CAGE Questions | CIWA-Ar | COWS Score

    John Vizuete, MD, MPH

    John Vizuete, MD, MPH, is currently a senior gastroenterology fellow at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. A native Texan, Dr. Vizuete obtained his BA at the University of Texas at Austin, followed by medical school and internal medicine residency training at UTHSCSA. He also holds a master’s degree in public health. Dr. Vizuete is interested in clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal bleeding, luminal endoscopy, and inflammatory bowel disease and is actively involved in medical education.

    Graham Walker, MD

    Graham Walker, MD, is an emergency physician practicing in San Francisco, California. Dr. Walker attended medical school at the Stanford University School of Medicine and then trained in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City, where he was Chief Resident. He returned to the west coast as a Medical Simulation fellow and attending in Stanford’s emergency department and has been with Kaiser since 2012. More relevant, of course, is that Dr. Walker is the creator and developer of MDCalc and remains active in content and calculator development, along with our many other endeavors as President of MD Aware, LLC (MDCalc’s parent company).