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      Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm





    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Contributors to MDCalc

    MDCalc’s Contributors author the content accompanying calcs, which provides guidance on When to Use, Pearls/Pitfalls, Why Use, Next Steps, and an Evidence Appraisal. Our Contributors tend to be academic physicians practicing clinically, typically earlier in their careers, who are passionate about EBM and interested in translating evidence into usable bedside tools.

    Contributors who write content for three or more calcs or other reviews have the opportunity to be listed on this page, with an expected contribution of one calc per year thereafter to be considered an active contributor (see past contributors here).

    We also consider fellows and senior residents going into academic medicine. Applications for Contributors are reviewed on a rolling basis. Contributors may also be invited to peer review other calculators in their specialty.

    To apply, please submit your application here.

    Ziad Bakouny, MD, MSc

    Ziad Bakouny, MD, MSc, is a postdoctoral genitourinary oncology research fellow at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Harvard Cancer Center. Dr. Bakouny received his medical degree from the University of Saint Joseph in Beirut, Lebanon, during which time he concurrently obtained a master’s in biomechanics and medical imaging. He has published more than 30 peer-reviewed papers, presented 70 abstracts at international scientific conferences, and received various awards for his research, including a Conquer Cancer Foundation merit award at the American Society of Clinical Oncology and Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer’s clinical immuno-oncology symposium. His areas of interest include genitourinary oncology, biomarker research, and bioinformatics.

    Calculators contributed to: IMDC Model for mRCC | MSKCC/Motzer Criteria for RCC | TNM RCC Staging (8th Ed.)

    Joshua Beiner, MD

    Joshua Beiner, MD, is an attending physician and assistant professor of clinical emergency medicine and pediatrics at NYU. A native New Yorker, Dr. Beiner moved to New Orleans to study at Tulane University before traveling to Israel where he received his medical degree from Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University. He returned to New York to complete residency training in pediatrics at Albert Einstein – Jacobi Medical Center. His research interests include pediatric sepsis, clinical decision rules, evidence-based medicine, and emergency ultrasound.

    Calculators contributed to: APGAR Score | PECARN Pediatric Head Injury Rule | Pediatric SIRS | Westley Croup Score

    Cullen Clark, MD

    Cullen Clark, MD, is a combined emergency medicine/pediatrics resident at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. Originally from Louisville, Kentucky, Cullen is a graduate of the University of Louisville School of Medicine. His areas of interest include pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric critical care, pain management in the emergency department, and disaster medicine.

    Calculators contributed to: ABC Score | Bacterial Meningitis Score | HEART Pathway | OHFRS | PECARN IAI | Pediatric Asthma Score | San Francisco Syncope Rule

    Elie Harmouche, MD

    Elie Harmouche, MD, is a medical toxicology fellow at the department of emergency medicine at New York University. He was born and raised in Beirut, Lebanon, and he received his medical degree from the American University of Beirut. He completed a residency in emergency medicine at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, MI and served as chief resident in his final year, followed by fellowship in toxicology at NYU Langone/Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City. His areas of interest include toxicology, addiction and substance use, simulation medicine, resuscitation, and critical care.

    Calculators contributed to: High-dose Insulin Euglycemia Therapy (HIET) | McMahon Score | Naloxone Drip Dosing | PAWSS

    Ronald George Hauser, MD

    Ronald "George" Hauser, MD, is an assistant professor in laboratory medicine at Yale University School of Medicine who splits his time between clinical medicine and informatics research. As an attending physician, he practices medicine at the interface between other clinicians and the clinical laboratories, which include Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, and the Blood Bank. He also works along with medical residents, particularly at the Veterans Affairs Hospital in West Haven, Connecticut. He practices clinical informatics for various projects affiliated at Yale University and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) including the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS; Yale, NIH) and the HIV, Hepatitis, and Related Conditions program (VHA).

    Calculators contributed to: Blood Volume Calculation | Corrected Count Increment (CCI) | Cryo Dosing (Fibrinogen Replacement) | Donor Lymphocyte Infusion Volume | RhIG (RhoGAM) Dosing | Blood Stem Cell Collection | Plasma Dosage | RBC Compatibility Testing | Therapeutic Plasmapheresis

    Christian Hietanen, DO

    Christian Hietanen, DO, is a clinical assistant professor in the department of primary care at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine in Middletown, New York. Dr. Hietanen graduated from Canisius College in his hometown of Buffalo, NY, and received his DO from the New York College of Osteopathic Medicine. He completed a pediatrics residency at Upstate Medical University and then moved to the Hudson Valley to practice outpatient pediatrics. Additionally, he directs the third-year pediatric clerkship at Orange Regional Medical Center in Middletown, and he continues his practice on a part-time basis.

    Calculators contributed to: FeverPAIN Score | Paradise Criteria | Shock Index, Pediatric Age-Adjusted (SIPA)

    Akhil Khosla, MD

    Akhil Khosla, MD, is a pulmonary and critical care physician at Yale-New Haven Hospital. A native of Ontario, Canada, Dr. Khosla completed his internal medicine residency at Norwalk Hospital in Connecticut and then completed fellowships in pulmonary and critical care at Norwalk Hospital and Yale University School of Medicine. His current clinical and research interests include acute pulmonary embolism, airway management in the ICU, shock, and resuscitation. He is actively involved in a number of quality improvement projects including management of pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs).

    Calculators contributed to: BAP-65 | BODE Index | Bova Score | DECAF Score

    Benjamin Kummer, MD

    Benjamin Kummer, MD, is currently the inaugural Clinical Informatics fellow at New York Presbyterian Hospital, a joint program with Columbia University’s Department of Biomedical Informatics. A New York City native, Dr. Kummer earned a BA from the University of Pennsylvania before working for several years as a business systems analyst at Capital IQ, a financial technology firm. He received his MD from Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia and completed residency training in neurology at the Neurological Institute of New York at Columbia University Medical Center, followed by a fellowship in stroke neurology at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center.

    Calculators contributed to: ASTRAL Score | CP-SSS | Fisher Grading Scale | Hunt & Hess Classification | Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) Score | Modified Fisher Scale | mSOAR Score | sICH Score

    Matthew Lecuyer, MD, MPH

    Matthew Lecuyer, MD, MPH, is an attending physician and instructor in pediatric emergency medicine at the Children’s National Medical Center/George Washington University in Washington, DC. Dr. Lecuyer received his undergraduate degree from Georgetown University and his medical degree from the University of Massachusetts. He completed his pediatrics training at Northwestern/Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago in Chicago, IL, before completing his fellowship in pediatric emergency medicine and MPH at Brown University in Providence, RI. His interests include health policy, LGBTQ+ medicine, and pediatric emergency medicine.

    Calculators contributed to: Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) | Rule of 7s | Westley Croup Score

    Hyunjoo Lee, MD

    Hyunjoo Lee, MD, is a clinical assistant professor in emergency medicine at Stony Brook University Hospital. Born and raised in New York, she left New York for her undergraduate studies at Swarthmore College where she received a BA in Biology. She returned to New York and did research in B-cell biology and CLL before heading back to school to obtain her MD from Stony Brook University School of Medicine. She completed her emergency medicine residency at Mount Sinai Beth Israel in New York City and a medical education fellowship in the department of emergency medicine at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia.

    Calculators contributed to: HEART Score | ORBIT Score for Afib | PSS-3 | TIMI Score for UA/NSTEMI | T-MACS | Vancouver Chest Pain Rule

    Scott Lucyk, MD

    Scott Lucyk, MD, is an emergency physician and medical toxicologist with the Poison and Drug Information Service (PADIS) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Dr. Lucyk obtained his Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada (FRCPC) in emergency medicine from the University of Alberta, followed by a fellowship in medical toxicology at the New York Poison Control Center in New York City. Currently, he is the associate medical director at PADIS and the program director of the clinical pharmacology and toxicology subspecialty in Calgary. Dr. Lucyk focuses his non-clinical time on medical education and resident teaching.

    Calculators contributed to: NAC Dosing (Tylenol OD) | DigiFab (Digibind) Dosing | Estimated Serum Concentration of Alcohols

    Joseph Mizrahi, MD

    Joseph Mizrahi, MD, is an internal medicine resident at Stony Brook University Hospital in New York. Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Dr. Mizrahi received his medical degree from the Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University, and he is also currently a student at the School of Public Health at Stony Brook University. Dr. Mizrahi's areas of interest include gastroenterology and colorectal cancer prevention and screening.

    Calculators contributed to: Fick Cardiac Output | Prague C & M Classification | Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (Acute Cholangitis) | Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (Acute Cholecystitis)

    Matthew Negaard, MD

    Matthew Negaard, MD, is a current third-year emergency medicine resident at the University of Iowa. He grew up in Sioux City, Iowa and attended Northwestern College in Orange City, Iowa for his undergraduate education. Dr. Negaard received his medical degree from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine where he began to develop an interest in emergency medicine and sports medicine. He has continued to develop and expand his interest in those fields as well as medical education through clinical research and evidence-based practice activities. He plans to pursue a sports medicine fellowship upon completion of his residency.

    Calculators contributed to: Newsom Score | Peds NEXUS II Head CT Decision Instrument | YEARS Algorithm

    Priya Patel, MD

    Priya Patel, MD, is currently a cornea fellow at Emory University in Atlanta, GA. She completed her ophthalmology residency at the New York University School of Medicine, where she was chief resident. A native of New Jersey, Dr. Patel attended Duke University for her undergraduate studies followed by medical school at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. Her interests include healthcare accessibility and resident education.

    Calculators contributed to: Ishihara Test | Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) Dosing | OHTS Calculator | Snellen Chart

    Chetana Pendkar, MBBS

    Chetana Pendkar, MBBS, is a pulmonary critical care fellow at SUNY Downstate in Brooklyn, New York. Born and raised in Mumbai, she received her MBBS from Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Mumbai. Dr. Pendkar completed her internal medicine residency at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. Her clinical interests include pulmonary physiology, ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Calculators contributed to: ADHERE Algorithm | GWTG-HF Risk Score | Urinary Protein Excretion Estimation

    Carlos Rodriguez, MD

    Carlos Rodriguez, MD, is a clinical assistant professor and assistant director of the medical education fellowship at the department of emergency medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA. Originally from Puerto Rico, Dr. Rodriguez earned his medical degree from San Juan Bautista School of Medicine in Puerto Rico. He later completed his emergency medicine residency at Lincoln Hospital in New York and a medical education fellowship at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Currently, he is in the process of obtaining a masters of education in the health professions from Johns Hopkins University. His interests include graduate medical education and faculty development.

    Calculators contributed to: HEART Score | TIMI Score for UA/NSTEMI | Vancouver Chest Pain Rule

    Daniel Runde, MD

    Daniel Runde, MD, is currently the assistant residency director and an assistant professor of emergency medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. He received his medical degree at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and completed residency in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York. He recently finished his Medical Education Fellowship at the department of emergency medicine at Harbor-UCLA. Dr. Runde is interested in evidence-based medicine with a focus on patient-important clinical outcomes, CT utilization in the emergency department and education and evaluation in medical education. Currently, he is in the process of obtaining a Masters in Medical Education through the Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

    Calculators contributed to: ABCD² Score | ASPECT Score | Barnes Jewish Hospital Stroke Dysphagia Screen | Canadian C-Spine Rule | Canadian CT Head Rule | CHADS₂ Score | DRAGON Score | EDACS | Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) | Modified NIH Stroke Scale | Modified Rankin Score | New Orleans Head CT Rule | NEXUS C-Spine Rule | NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) | PECARN Pediatric Head Injury Rule | Simplified Motor Score | THRIVE Score | tPA Contraindications

    Benjamin Slovis, MD

    Benjamin H. Slovis, MD, MA, is an emergency medicine physician and informatician in the department of emergency medicine at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia. A native of New Jersey, Dr. Slovis attended Cornell University for his undergraduate studies and received his MD from UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. He completed his residency at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and a National Library of Medicine Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship with a masters degree from the department of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia University. His research interests include clinical decision support systems, health-information exchange, and medical education.

    Calculators contributed to: Altitude-Adjusted PERC Rule | CPOT Pain Scale | DASH Score | Geneva Score (Revised) | Padua Prediction Score | PERC Rule | POMPE-C Tool | PESI Score | Simplified PESI | Wells' Score for DVT | Wells' Score for PE

    Christopher Tainter, MD, RDMS

    Christopher Tainter, MD, RDMS, is an intensivist and emergency physician at the University of California, San Diego. Raised in Seattle, Dr. Tainter received his medical degree from the University of Washington School of Medicine. He then completed an emergency medicine residency at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, and a fellowship in anesthesia critical care medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He is the fellowship director for UCSD's emergency medicine/anesthesia critical care medicine fellowship program.

    Calculators contributed to: ACTION ICU Score | RESP Score for ECMO | SAVE Score for ECMO

    Derek Tam, MD, MPH

    Derek Tam, MD, MPH, is a pediatric resident at Maimonides Children's Hospital in Brooklyn, NY. Dr. Tam completed an undergraduate degree in cognitive science at Northwestern University in Chicago, IL, and received his MD and MPH from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. He will serve as chief resident for the pediatric residency program at Maimonides for the academic year 2019-2020 and plans to pursue a fellowship in pediatric emergency medicine. His academic interests include emergency medicine, pediatric resuscitation, antibiotic stewardship, and epidemiology.

    Calculators contributed to: Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAPD) | Estimated Peak Flow | Jones Criteria for ARF | Modified Mallampati Classification | PECARN Febrile Infants (29-60 Days Old) | Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator | PedNIHSS | Revised Schwartz Equation (2009) | WAT-1 for Peds Withdrawal

    Justin Taylor, MD

    Justin Taylor, MD, is an assistant professor on the Leukemia Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. He is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology. He completed his internship and residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. His clinical and research focuses are on the basic biology and translational significance of somatic genetic mutations in hematologic malignancies.

    Calculators contributed to: EUTOS Score | CLL-IPI | MIPI | MASCC Risk Index | IPSS-R | Sokal Score

    Edmund Tsui, MD

    Edmund Tsui, MD, is an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles. He was previously a uveitis fellow at the Proctor Foundation at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Tsui obtained his medical degree from the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and completed his ophthalmology residency training at NYU where he was elected chief resident. He is also a social media editor for Ophthalmology. His research interests include the use of multimodal ophthalmic imaging to diagnose and monitor uveitis.

    Calculators contributed to: Ishihara Test | Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) Dosing | OHTS Calculator | Snellen Chart

    Graham Walker, MD

    Graham Walker, MD, is an emergency physician practicing in San Francisco, California. Dr. Walker attended medical school at the Stanford University School of Medicine and then trained in emergency medicine at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City, where he was Chief Resident. He returned to the west coast as a Medical Simulation fellow and attending in Stanford’s emergency department. More relevant, of course, is that Dr. Walker is the creator and developer of MDCalc and remains active in content and calculator development, along with our many other endeavors as President of MD Aware, LLC (MDCalc’s parent company).

    Calculators contributed to: ADAPT Protocol | Berlin Criteria for ARDS | COVID-GRAM Risk Score | Clinical Frailty Scale | GRACE ACS Score | IE Mortality Risk Score | IV Drip Rate Calculator | mSOFA Score | NAFLD Fibrosis Score | Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) | NEXUS Chest Rule | Roth Score for Hypoxia Screening | ROX Index for Intubation | SEDAN Score | Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy (SIC) Score | Static Lung Compliance | TIMI Score for STEMI | Tisdale Risk Score for QT

    Evan Zeitler, MD

    Evan Zeitler, MD, is a nephrology fellow at UNC Chapel Hill in North Carolina. He has spent his medical career at UNC, completing medical school, residency, and a nephrology fellowship there. He is passionate about medical education, chronic kidney disease, and acid-base disorders. Dr. Zeitler's primary research is focused on obesity and its downstream effects on kidney metabolism and health.

    Calculators contributed to: CKD-EPI Equations for GFR | Creatinine Clearance | MDRD GFR Equation

    Past Contributors

    • Jonathan Avery, MD
    • Calvin Hwang, MD
    • Rachel Kwon, MD
    • Kamal Medlej, MD
    • Sagar Patel, MD
    • Randall Pierce, MD
    • Ferda Sakman, MD
    • Eric Steinberg, DO
    • Katherine E. Taylor, MD
    • John Vizuete, MD, MPH