Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm





    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale

    Grades functional status in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
    When to Use
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    Completely independent: able to do all chores without difficulty; essentially normal; unaware of any difficulty
    Completely independent: able to do all chores with some difficulty (may take twice as long); beginning to be aware of difficulty
    Mostly independent: chores takes twice as long; conscious of difficulty
    Not completely independent: more difficulty with some chores; takes 3-4x longer for some
    Some dependency: can do most chores but exceedingly slowly and with much effort; makes errors; some chores impossible
    More dependent: needs help with half of chores; is slower and has difficulty with everything
    Heavily dependent: can assist with all chores but does few alone
    Mostly dependent: with effort, can sometimes do a few chores alone or begin alone; much help needed
    Severely dependent: can help slighly with some chores but nothing alone
    Completely dependent: helpless; complete invalid
    Bedridden: vegetative functions such as swallowing, bladder and bowel functions impaired


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    Creator Insights
    Dr. Robert S. Schwab

    About the Creator

    Robert S. Schwab, MD, (d. 1972) was a neurologist and professor at Harvard Medical School. He contributed to a number of key advances in neurology, including the Schwab and England Scale and the Harvard criteria for brain death. Dr. Schwab is also well-known for his role as an expert witness in the Jack Ruby trial, testifying that Ruby was likely not insane when he shot Lee Harvey Oswald.

    To view Dr. Robert S. Schwab's publications, visit PubMed

    About the Creator
    Dr. Robert S. Schwab