Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm





    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale

    Grades functional status in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
    When to Use
    Do you use the Schwab and England ADL Scale and want to contribute your expertise? Join our contributor team!
    Completely independent: able to do all chores without difficulty; essentially normal; unaware of any difficulty
    Completely independent: able to do all chores with some difficulty (may take twice as long); beginning to be aware of difficulty
    Mostly independent: chores takes twice as long; conscious of difficulty
    Not completely independent: more difficulty with some chores; takes 3-4x longer for some
    Some dependency: can do most chores but exceedingly slowly and with much effort; makes errors; some chores impossible
    More dependent: needs help with half of chores; is slower and has difficulty with everything
    Heavily dependent: can assist with all chores but does few alone
    Mostly dependent: with effort, can sometimes do a few chores alone or begin alone; much help needed
    Severely dependent: can help slighly with some chores but nothing alone
    Completely dependent: helpless; complete invalid
    Bedridden: vegetative functions such as swallowing, bladder and bowel functions impaired


    Please fill out required fields.

    Next Steps
    Creator Insights
    Dr. Robert S. Schwab

    About the Creator

    Robert S. Schwab, MD, (d. 1972) was a neurologist and professor at Harvard Medical School. He contributed to a number of key advances in neurology, including the Schwab and England Scale and the Harvard criteria for brain death. Dr. Schwab is also well-known for his role as an expert witness in the Jack Ruby trial, testifying that Ruby was likely not insane when he shot Lee Harvey Oswald.

    To view Dr. Robert S. Schwab's publications, visit PubMed

    Are you Dr. Robert S. Schwab? Send us a message to review your photo and bio, and find out how to submit Creator Insights!
    MDCalc loves calculator creators – researchers who, through intelligent and often complex methods, discover tools that describe scientific facts that can then be applied in practice. These are real scientific discoveries about the nature of the human body, which can be invaluable to physicians taking care of patients.
    About the Creator
    Dr. Robert S. Schwab
    Are you Dr. Robert S. Schwab?