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    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Parkland Formula for Burns

    Calculates fluid requirements for burn patients in a 24-hour period.


    Use in adult patients with burns. Children have larger TBSA relative to weight and may require larger fluid volumes.
    When to Use
    Why Use

    Patients with acute burns.

    • The Parkland Formula is a validated and effective approach to initial fluid resuscitation in the acutely burned patient.
    • Overly aggressive fluid resuscitation, termed “fluid creep”, is well documented in critical care literature. Factors that may lead to fluid creep include lack of physician observation of endpoints (i.e. urine output), increased opioid use and the emergency nature of goal-directed resuscitation.
    • Patients with inhalational and electrical burns, as well as children and the elderly, may require more or less fluid resuscitation than is predicted by the formula.
    • The Parkland Formula has been endorsed by the American Burn Association.
    • It has been shown to appropriately restore intravascular volume and limit the development of hypovolemic shock.
    Rule of 9's for Adults: 9% for each arm, 18% for each leg, 9% for head,18% for front torso, 18% for back torso.
    Rule of 9's for Children: 9% for each arm, 14% for each leg, 18% for head, 18% for front torso, 18% for back torso.


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    Creator Insights
    Dr. Charles R. Baxter

    About the Creator

    Charles R. Baxter, MD, (d. 2005) was the director of the emergency department at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas. He founded the Parkland Hospital Burn Unit and was an active researcher, making advances in the treatment of burn victims and trauma procedures. Dr. Baxter was also one of the physicians who unsuccessfully tried to save John F. Kennedy after he was shot in 1963.

    To view Dr. Charles R. Baxter's publications, visit PubMed

    Are you Dr. Charles R. Baxter? Send us a message to review your photo and bio, and find out how to submit Creator Insights!
    MDCalc loves calculator creators – researchers who, through intelligent and often complex methods, discover tools that describe scientific facts that can then be applied in practice. These are real scientific discoveries about the nature of the human body, which can be invaluable to physicians taking care of patients.
    Content Contributors
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    About the Creator
    Dr. Charles R. Baxter
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