Consider treatment based on stage.
- Stage A: High risk for developing HF but no structural disorder of the heart
- Stage B: Structural disorder of the heart but has never developed symptoms of HF
- Stage C: Past or current symptoms of HF associated with underlying structural heart disease
- Stage D: End-stage disease requiring specialized treatment strategies such as mechanical circulatory support, continuous inotropic infusions, cardiac transplantation, or hospice care
Facts & Figures
|Stage||Class I recommendations*|
From Hunt et al, 2001.
*Conditions for which there is evidence and/or general agreement that a given procedure/therapy is useful and effective. For full recommendations, see Hunt et al, 2001.
The ACC/AHA Heart Failure Stages were developed jointly by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) by expert consensus. They were intended to complement, but not replace, the more widely-used New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, since contemporary treatment recommendations did not vary by class.
Original/Primary ReferenceHunt SA, Baker DW et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: Executive Summary A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): Developed in Collaboration With the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; Endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2001 Dec 11;104(24):2996-3007.
About the Creator
Sharon Hunt, MD, is a professor of medicine at Stanford University as well as the Med Center Line. She is a member of the Cardiovascular Institute. Dr. Hunt's research focuses on cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction and is a co-author on many ACC/AHA guidelines.
To view Dr. Sharon Hunt's publications, visit PubMed