Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm





    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) for Cancer Outcomes

    Provides cancer prognosis based on serum biomarkers.


    Note: We recommend the Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score over this original version.
    When to Use
    Why Use

    Patients with known cancer.

    • The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been evaluated across numerous different cancer cohorts and suggests incrementally worsening prognosis with increasing score.
    • Depending upon patient selection, stage, cancer and other factors the resulting survival numbers vary widely.
    • The modified GPS uses the same parameters as the original GPS (CRP and albumin), but weighs the inflammatory component more heavily; i.e., patients with low albumin are still assigned a score of 0 even if CRP is elevated. The modified GPS was shown to have better correlation with survival (in colon and rectal cancer from the original paper, and in other cancers from the validation papers).

    Multiple studies suggest significantly worse outcome in multiple types of cancer, including “increased weight loss, poor performance status, increased comorbidity, increased pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and complications on treatment.” (McMillan DC 2013)

    CRP ≤10 mg/L
    CRP >10 mg/L
    Albumin <3.5 g/dL (35 g/L)
    Albumin ≥3.5 g/dL (35 g/L)


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    Next Steps
    Creator Insights


    The Glasgow Prognosis Score (GPS) helps stratify prognosis groups and may be a worthy addition to multifactorial evaluations.


    We are unaware of validated management algorithms using the GPS.

    Critical Actions

    The GPS requires serum laboratory values and may be relevant when drawn prior to or after cancer diagnosis.


    Selection of appropriate criteria.

    Facts & Figures

    The GPS has been shown to be accurate in different types of cancer, including cervical, renal, lung, gastric cancers, as well as in primary care. However, the score has been modified with better predictive values.


    Dr. Donald McMillan

    About the Creator

    Donald McMillan, MD, is a professor of surgical science at the University of Glasgow and an associate academic at the Institute of Cancer Sciences. His research focuses on systemic inflammatory response in weight loss and poor physical function, quality of life and survival of cancer patients.

    To view Dr. Donald McMillan's publications, visit PubMed