Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
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    Chief Complaint


    Organ System


    Patent Pending

    United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD)

    Predicts mortality in end-stage liver disease patients for transplant planning (UK-specific).


    Use in context of national liver transplantation guidelines. In the UK, refer to NHS Blood and Transplant policy.

    When to Use
    Why Use

    • Use to determine eligibility in patients with chronic liver disease awaiting transplant.

    • Do not use in patients awaiting transplant for other causes (e.g. HCC, acute liver failure).

    • UKELD was developed and validated in a UK population and should only be considered for use in the UK.

    • It was validated in a UK population of patients with chronic liver disease awaiting transplantation. Patients with HCC were excluded.

    • A cutoff of 9% 1-year mortality was used, as this was the 1-year mortality after liver transplantation in the UK at the time.

    • Interlaboratory differences may lead to variation in end-stage liver disease scores. For example, for the transplant center Royal Free Hospital in London, creatinine clearance is weighted differently and a local correction must be used to get valid results.

    Helps decide if a patient with chronic liver disease is eligible for liver transplantation in the UK.



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    Next Steps
    Creator Insights


    • Consult a hepatologist to help determine if patient may be eligible for transplantation for reasons other than chronic liver disease.

    • For patients meeting eligibility cutoff in the UK (score ≥49), contact local transplantation center with the locally agreed upon referral system.


    Most hospitals have a particular method for transplantation referring. Typically, this is done through referral via hepatology or gastroenterology services.


    UKELD Score = 5.395 × In(INR) + 1.485 × In(creatinine, μmol/L) + 3.13 × In(bilirubin, μmol/L) - 81.565 × In(sodium, mmol/L) + 435

    Facts & Figures


    • UKELD Score of ≥49 is the cutoff for transplant eligibility in UK, which corresponds to 1-year mortality of >9% without transplantation.
    • UKELD Score of 60 is predictive of 50% 1-year mortality.

    Evidence Appraisal

    The UKELD Score was derived by Barber et al from a prospective multicenter database of all UK-based liver transplantation centers. It included data from 1,103 adult patients awaiting their first elective liver transplantation from April 2003 to March 2006, and excluded patients presenting with acute liver failure or any type of cancer as their primary liver disease. The model was then validated on 452 patients awaiting elective liver transplantation in the UK between April 2006 and March 2007 (Barber 2011).

    The cutoff of 49 points for eligibility was decided upon as these patients had a 1-year mortality of 9% from their chronic liver disease, which is approximately equal to the 1-year mortality post liver transplantation at the time (Neuberger 2008). This is used in determining eligibility for transplantation in chronic liver disease by the NHS Blood and Transplant Service according to the liver transplantation policy (page 10, section 3.2.1, "Criteria for selection").

    Dr. James M. Neuberger

    About the Creator

    James M. Neuberger, MD, is a consultant physician at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, UK. He is also a professor of medicine at the University of Birmingham and the associate medical director for Organ Donation and Transplantation at NHS Blood and Transplant. Dr. Neuberger's primary research is focused on liver tranplantation planning and outcomes.

    To view Dr. James M. Neuberger's publications, visit PubMed

    Content Contributors
    • Andrew Baxter, MB ChB, MRCP(UK)
    About the Creator
    Dr. James M. Neuberger
    Content Contributors
    • Andrew Baxter, MB ChB, MRCP(UK)