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    Diabetes Care in the Hospital (beta)

    Based on guidelines from the American Diabetes Association.

    Evidence
    Level A
    Level B
    Level C
    Level E

    Standards of Medical Care

    Hospital Care Delivery Standards
    1. Perform an A1C on all patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia (blood glucose >140 mg/dL [7.8 mmol/L]) admitted to the hospital if not performed in the prior 3 months.
    Physician Order Entry
    1. Insulin should be administered using validated written or computerized protocols that allow for predefined adjustments in the insulin dosage based on glycemic fluctuations.
    Diabetes Care Providers in the Hospital
    1. When caring for hospitalized patients with diabetes, consider consulting with a specialized diabetes or glucose management team where possible.
    Glycemic Targets in Hospitalized Patients
    1. Insulin therapy should be initiated for treatment of persistent hyperglycemia starting at a threshold ≥180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L). Once insulin therapy is started, a target glucose range of 140–180 mg/dL (7.8–10.0 mmol/L) is recommended for the majority of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients.
    2. More stringent goals, such as 110–140 mg/dL (6.1–7.8 mmol/L), may be appropriate for selected patients, if this can be achieved without significant hypoglycemia.
    Antihyperglycemic Agents in Hospitalized Patients
    1. Basal insulin or a basal plus bolus correction insulin regimen is the preferred treatment for noncritically ill hospitalized patients with poor oral intake or those who are taking nothing by mouth. An insulin regimen with basal, prandial, and correction components is the preferred treatment for noncritically ill hospitalized patients with good nutritional intake.
    2. Sole use of sliding scale insulin in the inpatient hospital setting is strongly discouraged.
    Hypoglycemia
    1. A hypoglycemia management protocol should be adopted and implemented by each hospital or hospital system. A plan for preventing and treating hypoglycemia should be established for each patient. Episodes of hypoglycemia in the hospital should be documented in the medical record and tracked.
    2. The treatment regimen should be reviewed and changed as necessary to prevent further hypoglycemia when a blood glucose value of <70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) is documented.
    Transition from the Acute Care Setting
    1. There should be a structured discharge plan tailored to the individual patient with diabetes.
    What do the icons mean?  
    Research PaperAmerican Diabetes Association. 15. Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd—2019. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(Suppl 1):S173-S181.