This is an unprecedented time. It is the dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis. Thank you for everything you do.

      Calc Function

    • Calcs that help predict probability of a diseaseDiagnosis
    • Subcategory of 'Diagnosis' designed to be very sensitiveRule Out
    • Disease is diagnosed: prognosticate to guide treatmentPrognosis
    • Numerical inputs and outputsFormula
    • Med treatment and moreTreatment
    • Suggested protocolsAlgorithm

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    Patent Pending

    4C Mortality Score for COVID-19

    Predicts in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19.

    IMPORTANT

    Launched during COVID-19 crisis. Not externally validated. Use with caution. COVID-19 Resource Center.

    Tips for COVID-19: Use after diagnosis to determine dispo. Specific for Viral PNA and similar inputs as known COVID-19 mortality risk factors, but not externally validated.

    INSTRUCTIONS

    Use with admitted patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

    When to Use
    Pearls/Pitfalls
    Why Use

    Apply to risk stratify patients who are admitted with COVID-19.

    • Designed specifically for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This may not apply to patients seen in the outpatient setting.
    • Requires eight specific predictors of mortality, not all of which may be immediately available in all settings (e.g. CRP).  
    • Patient population in the study had a median age of 73 years old, 82% white, with an overall mortality of 32.2%. All patients were from England, Scotland, and Wales. Consider when applying this to your patient population.
    • Not externally validated and may lead to unknown applicability and generalizability.

    Risk stratification of admitted COVID-19 patients to aid in determining mortality risk, decision for level of care, and prognostication.

    <50
    0
    50-59
    +2
    60-69
    +4
    70-79
    +6
    ≥80
    +7
    Female
    0
    Male
    +1
    0
    0
    1
    +1
    ≥2
    +2
    <20
    0
    20-29
    +1
    ≥30
    +2
    ≥92%
    0
    <92%
    +2
    BUN
    Urea
    <19.6 mg/dL
    0
    ≥19.6 to ≤39.2 mg/dL
    +1
    >39.2 mg/dL
    +3
    <50 mg/L (<5 mg/dL)
    0
    50-99 mg/L (5-9.9 mg/dL)
    +1
    ≥100 mg/L (≥10 mg/dL)
    +2

    Result:

    Please fill out required fields.

    Next Steps
    Evidence
    Creator Insights
    Dr. Ewen M. Harrison

    About the Creator

    Ewen M. Harrison, PhD, MBChB, FRCS, MSc, is a professor of surgery and data science at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. He is also the lead of the surgical informatics group in the Centre for Medical Informatics at the University of Edinburgh.. Dr. Harrison's primary research is focused on the crowd-sourcing of patient level data, wearable technology, and global surgery.

    To view Dr. Ewen M. Harrison's publications, visit PubMed

    Are you Dr. Ewen M. Harrison? Send us a message to review your photo and bio, and find out how to submit Creator Insights!
    MDCalc loves calculator creators – researchers who, through intelligent and often complex methods, discover tools that describe scientific facts that can then be applied in practice. These are real scientific discoveries about the nature of the human body, which can be invaluable to physicians taking care of patients.
    Content Contributors
    • Miguel Reyes, MD
    • Arsalan Shawl, DO
    Reviewed By
    • Eric Steinberg, DO, MEHP
    About the Creator
    Dr. Ewen M. Harrison
    Are you Dr. Ewen M. Harrison?
    Content Contributors
    • Miguel Reyes, MD
    • Arsalan Shawl, DO
    Reviewed By
    • Eric Steinberg, DO, MEHP